- Africa spreads across the equator.
- Africa has a broad range of mountains, vegetation areas, sand dunes, rain forests, and the third most largest desert in the world the Sahara.
- The coastline of Africa contains ports, inlets, and harbors.
- The native people of Africa have developed cultures and societies with their environment.
- The Sahara desert however takes land at the Southern edge of Sahel.
- With Africas broad savannas it made it possible for nomads to grow grain.
- Another part of the Nomaic way of coping with the environment of Africa they raised cattle, and by growing their own food and raising cattle they the found a way to make shelters.
- Later the nomads discovered pottery, metals, and working with jewelry.
- Aksum became a major trade center in Africa trading from Egypt, Arabia, Persia, India, and the Roman Empire.
- At Aksum the merchants traded salt, rhinoceros horns, tortise shells, ivory, emeralds, and gold.
- A strong ruler named Ezana decided to expand and establish his ruling, he then took over the Arabian peninsula that is now Yemen.
- In the 700s a kingdom named Ghana and its rulers became rich by taxing goods on trades.
- Gold and salt were some of the most important items in trade.
- In the third century A.D. nomads began using camels because it was harder to trade by walking on foot.
- Ghana means war chief.
- In the 800s Ghana was an Empire.
- The king of Ghana was in control of the trade and the army.
- In 1235 Mali had formed.
- Mali's kingdom depended on gold, and so did Ghana.
- Malis last ruler Sundiata died in 1255 so then a muslim leader came in.
- Mansa the new ruler of Mali could have been Sundiatas nephew.
- Sudiata means emperor.
- The trade of Ghana influenced Muslim merchants to move to the south Sahara region.
- After the muslims invaded North Africa then they cam to conquer Chana.
- Although Muslim Almoravids gave up the war because it disrupted trade.
- Ghana never had recovery from the war.
- Mostly the fall of the Mali empire was the ability to not govern well.
- Then the trade of their gold was affected and the trade of Mali was shifted somewhere else.
- They introduced faith to the African region.
- They influenced the belief of spirits in animals, and plants.
- They influenced building structures.
- They helped the city of Timbuktu with Muslim judges, doctors, and religious leaders.
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